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26 years
Can a doctor give me a comprehensive list of all testable STDs by specifying the disease and its diagnostic test (i.e HIV -> blood test)?
Oct 7, 2014

Dr. Zakia Dimassi Pediatrics
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), can affect the general health, well-being and reproductive capacity of those infected. Participation in sexual risk behaviours can increase your chances of acquiring an STI.

There are many types of STIs, including:
Chlamydia: culture of urine and any genital secretions
Genital Herpes: The PCR blood test can detect if you have genital herpes even if there are no symptoms. This test detects fragments of the virus's DNA. This is the most common test used to diagnose genital herpes and is very accurate.
Gonorrhoea: Most of the time, urine can be used to test for gonorrhea. However, if you have had oral and/or anal sex, swabs may be used to collect samples from your throat and/or rectum. In some cases, a swab may be used to collect a sample from a man’s urethra (urine canal) or a woman’s cervix (opening to the womb).
Human Papillomavirus (HPV): in men, there are currently no recommended tests; diagnosis is made clinically if there are anal/genital warts (condylomas)
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
Syphilis: Venereal Disease Research Laboratory; VDRL; Rapid Plasma Reagin; RPR; Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption Test; FTA-ABS; Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination Assay; TPPA; Microhemagglutination Assay; MHA-TP; Darkfield Microscopy; Automated Immunoassays for Syphilis Antibodies; Treponema pallidum by PCR
In addition to other STDs, which include:
Scabies: special stain of skin scrapings of the affected are
Bacterial vaginosis (in women)
Trichomoniasis: a sample of urethral fluid to look for the disease-causing parasite. The parasite is harder to detect in men than in women.
Hepatitis B: HBcAb (hepatitis B core antibody); HBsAb (hepatitis B surface antibody); HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen). Diagnosis of acute vs. chronic infection will depend on the results of these tests.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV): ELISA, recombinant immunoblot assay, and HCV RNA PCR. Diagnosis of acute vs. chronic infection will depend on the results of these tests.
Lice: diagnosis is clinical +/- skin/hair follicle samples

Regarding HIV, you need to be aware of something called the window period, which is basically an interval period that varies between three weeks to six months between the time of HIV infection and the production of measurable antibodies to HIV seroconversion (seroconversion is when a specific antibody becomes detectable in the blood, and the corresponding antigen becomes undetectable. It is the point in time when the amount of antibody in the blood exceeds the amount of antigen, and the antibody becomes detectable. Before seroconversion, the antigen is detectable, but the antibody is not); during this time frame, antibody tests may give false negative (no antibodies were detected despite the presence of HIV) results. The majority of affected individuals develop detectable antibodies within an estimated 30 days after infection, although some seroconvert later. Most people (97%) have detectable antibodies by three months after HIV infection; a six-month window is extremely rare with modern antibody testing. During the window period, an infected person has the ability to transmit HIV to others although their HIV infection may not be detectable with an antibody test.
HIV tests include:
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or enzyme immunoassay (EIA), this was the first screening test commonly employed for HIV. It is highly sensitive.
2- Western blot: also an antibody detection test, used to confirm a positive ELISA result
3- The p24 antigen test: detects the presence of the p24 protein of HIV (also known as CA), the capsid protein of the virus.
4- Nucleic acid-based tests (NAT): these tests amplify and detect one or more of several target sequences located in specific HIV genes.
5- CD4 counts: The CD4 T-cell count is not an HIV test, it simply aims to determine the number of CD4 T-cells in the blood. A CD4 count does not check for the presence of HIV. It is used to monitor immune system function in HIV-positive people.