There are many types of STIs, including:
Chlamydia: culture of urine and any genital secretions
Genital Herpes: The PCR blood test can detect if you have genital herpes even if there are no symptoms. This test detects fragments of the virus's DNA. This is the most common test used to diagnose genital herpes and is very accurate.
Gonorrhoea: Most of the time, urine can be used to test for gonorrhea. However, if you have had oral and/or anal sex, swabs may be used to collect samples from your throat and/or rectum. In some cases, a swab may be used to collect a sample from a man’s urethra (urine canal) or a woman’s cervix (opening to the womb).
Human Papillomavirus (HPV): in men, there are currently no recommended tests; diagnosis is made clinically if there are anal/genital warts (condylomas)
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
Syphilis: Venereal Disease Research Laboratory; VDRL; Rapid Plasma Reagin; RPR; Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption Test; FTA-ABS; Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination Assay; TPPA; Microhemagglutination Assay; MHA-TP; Darkfield Microscopy; Automated Immunoassays for Syphilis Antibodies; Treponema pallidum by PCR
In addition to other STDs, which include:
Scabies: special stain of skin scrapings of the affected are
Bacterial vaginosis (in women)
Trichomoniasis: a sample of urethral fluid to look for the disease-causing parasite. The parasite is harder to detect in men than in women.
Hepatitis B: HBcAb (hepatitis B core antibody); HBsAb (hepatitis B surface antibody); HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen). Diagnosis of acute vs. chronic infection will depend on the results of these tests.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV): ELISA, recombinant immunoblot assay, and HCV RNA PCR. Diagnosis of acute vs. chronic infection will depend on the results of these tests.
Lice: diagnosis is clinical +/- skin/hair follicle samples
HIV tests include:
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or enzyme immunoassay (EIA), this was the first screening test commonly employed for HIV. It is highly sensitive.
2- Western blot: also an antibody detection test, used to confirm a positive ELISA result
3- The p24 antigen test: detects the presence of the p24 protein of HIV (also known as CA), the capsid protein of the virus.
4- Nucleic acid-based tests (NAT): these tests amplify and detect one or more of several target sequences located in specific HIV genes.
5- CD4 counts: The CD4 T-cell count is not an HIV test, it simply aims to determine the number of CD4 T-cells in the blood. A CD4 count does not check for the presence of HIV. It is used to monitor immune system function in HIV-positive people.