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Dr. Rania Mousa General Medicine
A seizure is a sudden change in behavior that is the consequence of brain dysfunction

Epileptic seizures result from electrical hypersynchronization of neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex. Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures due to a genetically determined or acquired brain disorder

I is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. The seizures happen when clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain send out the wrong signals. People may have strange sensations and emotions or behave strangely. They may have violent muscle spasms or lose consciousness.

The human brain is the source of human epilepsy. Although the symptoms of a seizure may affect any part of the body, the electrical events that produce the symptoms occur in the brain. The location of that event, how it spreads and how much of the brain is affected, and how long it lasts all have profound effects. These factors determine the character of a seizure and its impact on the individual.

Some people with epilepsy simply stare blankly for a few seconds during a seizure, while others repeatedly twitch their arms or legs.

In epilepsy the following sequence is common:
-sudden falls unconsciousness, often letting out a cry.
-the peson becomes rigid, arching their back.
-they may stop breathing , the lips may show a grey-blue tinge (cyanosis) and the face and neck may become red and puffy.
-Convulsive movements begin. The jaw may be clenched and breathing may be noisy. Saliva may appear at the mouth and may be bloodstained if the lips or tongue have been bitten.
-There may be loss of bladder or bowel control. Muscles relax and breathing becomes normal; the person recovers consciousness, usually within a few minutes They may feel dazed or act strangely. They may be unaware of their actions.
-After a seizure, the person may feel tired and fall into a deep sleep.

Causes of epilepsy vary by age of the person. Some people with no clear cause of epilepsy may have a genetic cause
Sometimes EEG testing, clinical history, family history and outlook are similar among a group of people with epilepsy. In these situations, their condition can be defined as a specific epilepsy syndrome.
However,these are some common causes:
-genetic form of epilepsy.
-a change in the structure of their brains that causes the electrical storms of seizures.
-Infections of the brain are also common causes of epilepsy. The initial infections are treated with medication, but the infection can leave scarring on the brain that causes seizures at a later time.
-in young people ,head injuries are common cause
-strokes, tumors and injuries ,this the common cause of old age people epilipsy
-in infants and children the causes might be lack of oxygen when birth ,fever,low blood sugar ,calcium ,magnesium and other electrolytes,congenital diseases down symdrome and others
-certain medications
-poisons drugs and alcohol

you need to know how to deal with people with seizure or epilipsy :
first :
>make the following steps:
If you see the person falling, try to ease the fall.
Make space around them, ask bystanders to move away.
Remove potentially dangerous items, such as hot drinks and sharp objects.
Note the time when the seizure started.
If possible, protect the person's head by placing soft padding underneath it.
Loosen clothing around the neck.
When the seizure has ceased:
check breathing, give rescue breaths and chest compressions,Place them into the recovery position if the person is unconscious but breathing normally,check his level of response, pulse and breathing,note the duration of the seizure.
if The person is unconscious for more than 10 minutes.
OR The seizure continues for more than 5 minutes.
OR The person is having repeated seizures or having their first seizure.
OR The person is not aware of any reason for the seizure.
You must go to the emergency department .
Having seizures and epilepsy affect one's safety, relationships, work, driving and so much more. How epilepsy is perceived or how people are treated often is a bigger problem than the seizures itself ,

it might be a chronic condition depending on causes ,where the patient must been checked by a doctor frequently to take the treatment plan and adjust the doses of medicines taken .

ANY PERSON with epilipsy MUST NOT stop the medication abruptly this may provoke a severe attack epilipsy .