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Dr. Rania Mousa General Medicine
A kidney stone(the same as kidney sand -but people refer to as sand because it is smaller than a stone -but both are the same different in size) can form when substances such as calcium, oxalate, cystine, or uric acid are at high levels in the urine.
Stones can also form if these substances are at normal levels, especially if the amount of urine made each day is low. The substances form crystals, which become anchored in the kidney and gradually increase in size, forming a kidney stone.

Typically, the stone will move through the urinary tract and is passed out of the body in the urine. A stone may cause pain if it becomes stuck and blocks the flow of urine. Large stones do not always pass on their own and sometimes require a minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove them

Symtoms associated with kidney stone are :

>Pain it is the most common symptom when passing a kidney stone. Most commonly, pain only occurs with obstruction, in which the urine cannot pass freely from the kidney to the bladder. Pain can range from a mild and barely noticeable ache to discomfort that is so intense it requires treatment in the hospital. Typically, the pain gets worse and better, but does not go away completely. Waves of severe pain, known as renal colic, usually last 20 to 60 minutes. Pain can occur in the flank (the side, between the ribs and the hip) or the lower abdomen , and the pain can move toward the groin.

-Blood in the urine , most people with kidney stones will have blood in the urine (hematuria). The urine may be pink or reddish, or the blood may be visible onlymicroscopic examination of the urine.

>one can pass "sand," or small stones in your urine.

> Other kidney stone symptoms include nausea or vomiting, pain with urination, and an urgent need to urinate.

>Many people with stones that remain in the kidney and do not cause obstruction have no symptoms. These kidney stones are usually found when an imaging study (such as an ultrasound, X-ray or CT scan) is performed for other purposes. Stones can remain in the kidneys for many years without ever causing symptoms.

Symptoms beside ct and an ultrasound diagnose the condition.

Treatment of a kidney stone that is causing obstruction depends upon the size and location of the stone, as well as pain and ability to keep down fluids. If stone is likely to pass, pain is tolerable, and are able to eat and drink, then it can be treated at home.

If you have severe pain or nausea, it will need to be treated with stronger pain medications and IV fluids, which are often given in the hospital. In addition, patients with stones and who also have a fever should be treated in the hospital as soon as possible to avoid a life-threatening infection