Blood glucose is tested either randomly, or during fasting (also known as Fasting Blood Sugar). The ability to metabolize sugar properly which assesses what we call glucose tolerance is tested by administering a certain amount of sugar, orally, then measuring the blood sugar level after 1 or 2 hours (this test is called 1 hour- or 2 hour- oral glucose tolerance test OGTT). For the sugar that gets carried by red blood cells, we measure HbA1C, which refers to glycated hemoglobin. HbA1C forms when hemoglobin, the protein found within red blood cells that carries oxygen, collates with glucose in the blood, becoming 'glycated'. By measuring HbA1C, we can estimate, overall, the average blood sugar levels over a period of weeks/months, usually over 120 days, which is the lifetime of a red blood cell. Each of the above listed tests is performed for a specific indication/purpose and there is no one test that replaces the other. In other words, there is no "most accurate test for blood glucose".
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It is recommended that all individuals see a Family Doctor for a full medical examination annually. Adults should get their blood pressure checked (US Preventive Task Force), a flu vaccine (CDC) and more each year.